Stain Classification

All stain may be classification under one of the A B C groups, namely, Absorbed , Build-up and Compound , and identification by means of these groups aids quick recognition.

  1. Absorbed satin are those which penetrate the fabric owing to the stain agent being thin in consistency and penetrating in nature. In the majority of cases they are soft and pliable, although a slight stiffness is sometimes imparted to fabrics when the substance responsible for the stain contains sugar, syrup or dissolved starches. By far the greater number of stains fall within this group of which coffee, tea, beer, iodine, liqueurs and picric acid are example.

  2. Built-up stains are usually hard and stiff ; some are sticky and others smooth and shiny . In this classification the staining is usually caused by fluids or pastes of such viscosity that they fail to penetrate the fabric . Liquids which carry pigments also cause a stain of this character .

    Paint is a typical example of this class of stain as is nearly always built-up on the surface of the fabric ; owing to the oil and thinners having penetrated the fabric, leaving the pigment lying on the surface . Other stains of this nature are tar, pitch, mud, sealing wax & and putty. It will be seen from these examples that although they all fall into the built-up group, they all require different removal techniques .

  3. Compound stains are those which are a combination of the A and B groups, that is, they are both absorbed and built-up, and may be hard and stiff, of somewhat pliable, although they will never be found exceptionally hard or perfectly soft .

    Blood is a stain which comes within this group, as it will penetrate the fabric and also leave built-up deposit upon the surface.

Having established the group to which a stain belongs, the spotter can go on to identify the stain by using the following six methods ( which may be applied in almost a single motion ) in the case of a stain which he does not recognise :

  • Sight

  • Odour

  • Colour

  • Feel

  • Location

  • Occupation

Any of this methods when used in conjunction with the stain classification grouping will invariably give a good ground on which to commence removal operation .

Kind Of Clothes

The rang of fibres encounter in present-day fabrics is both wide and varied, ranging from the natural protein fibers which are obtained from animal sources, and the cellulosic fibres of vegetable origin to the manufacture varieties which contain the semi-synthetic fibres or filaments obtained from cellulose, protein and mineral bases, and the completely synthetic or man-made multi and mono-filaments.

In view of this large range it is essential that the spotter should have a good knowledge of fibres which are at present used in the making of fabrics, as this will enable him or to detect new fibres when they come on the market and avoid the confusion and annoyance so often experienced with fabrics made up from newly evolved synthetic fibres or mixtures of natural and synthetic fibres .

The majority of fibres used for textiles are safe in all the processes of spotting, provided the are treated in a careful manner and in conformity with tested methods and formula.

Fibres are usually classified under their popular or trade names, and the following description of various fibres are also placed into their respective groups to aid easy identification .

Stain Removal Troubles

The technique of spotting to a minimum that First step in stain removal is 10ensure that your washing processes are efficient as possible

By using our products in your washing processes, detergency is maintained at the highest possible level , certain stain do not become set and hence stain removal is made easier

Methods of Stain Removal

Having mastered the various stages of stain classification, the spotter must then learn the methods employed in stain removal, which are four in number. Each method has its own particular advantages, employing various pieces of equipment, solvents and chemicals.

The methods of stain removal are designated in the following manner :-

  • Mechanical action.

  • Solvent action.

  • Chemical action.

  • Lubrication

Mechanical action

Mechanical action is carried out with the aid of such tools as brush, steam gun, spatula and water gun, these being used to break up and remove the raised or built-up portions of stains, and in some instances helping to release absorbed stains.

Many stains such as mud, water and litharge are practically removed by brushing and manipulation with the spatula, while the steam gun will soften and often remove stains merely by the heat and force of the steam .

Solvent action

This methods may be termed the spotter's main line of attack, as by the use of dry and wet solvents it is possible to eradicate the greater part of the stains encountered after dry-cleaning. Most of the oxidized oil stains, paint and lacquers are removed by the use of dry solvents which dissolve the hardened portions of the stains, so allowing complete removal to be effected by flushing with white spirit of chlorinated hydrocarbon.

Stains which have carbohydrates in their make-up, such as sugars and starches, are removed by wet solvents, the principal of which is water, as it dissolves the majority of food stains.

Chemical action

This term is used to denote the reaction which takes place when a chemical is applied to a stain. Such action is clearly observed when dilute silkorustout or commercial rust remover is applied a rust stain ; in this case the mark is decolourized by the production of a new compound which is more readily removed from the fabric before chemical action is applied to any stain, the affected area should be wetted out with water, as this will allow the chemical action to be more easily controlled, so preventing lose of colour or injury to the fabric.

the same process of flushing should be used when applying sikoinkout, as by saturating the affected area with white spirit, prior to using the more volatile liquids, the evaporation rate of these agents is slowed down, giving a longer period of solvent action without fear of affecting the dyestuff of fibers.


In the removal of insoluble substances such as graphite and pigments the lubrication method of great important. By the application of such lubricants as glycerin, "Vaseline". benzene soap and sulphated fatty alcohol to various spots and stains, insoluble particles are held in suspension, so preventing redeposition in the fabric.

In addition to acting as a carrier the lubricant prevents wear and chafing of the fabric, due to the use of the spatula or brush when breaking up the stain.

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